Basic Concepts of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) Modelling
Pharmacokinetics (PK) refers to the movement of drugs in and alteration of the drug by the body, whereas Pharmacodynamics (PD) refers to the body’s biological response to drugs.
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics considerations
Understanding the exposure-response relationship between Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (PKPD) is key to the development and approval of every drug. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics data contribute much of what is on a drug package insert. A well-characterized Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics studies are an important tool in guiding the design of future experiments and trials.
Advantages of PK/PD Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Analysis
The relationship between PK and PD is described by Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic analysis that relates drug concentration to drug effect. The most precise assessment of this relationship between drug concentration and drug effect would ideally measure drug concentrations at the site of receptors that mediate the measured effect.In practice, measurement of drug concentration at the receptor is often difficult, and the site of receptors might be unknown or broadly distributed. Accordingly, a common compromise is to measure drug concentrations in more accessible compartments (e.g., venous blood or cerebrospinal fluid) that usefully approximate drug concentrations across broad areas within the organism.
A second advantage of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic analysis is that it permits evaluation of the relationship between drug effect and concentrations not only of the administered drug, but also of drug metabolites.
A third advantage of Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics analysis is that it provides a basis not only for evaluating changing drug effects over time within an organism, but also for evaluating variable drug effects between organisms. Thus, the administration of a given drug dose in mg/kg units often produces different effects across subjects within a species or across subjects of different species in translational studies.
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